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        Maintenance techniques for excavators

        2018-11-06
        View:435次
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        The purpose of regular maintenance of excavators is to reduce machine failures, prolong machine life, shorten machine downtime, improve work efficiency and reduce operating costs. As long as we manage fuel, lubricating oil, water and air, we can reduce the breakdown by 70%. In fact, about 70% of the failures are caused by poor management.


        1. Fuel management


        Different grades of diesel oil should be selected according to different ambient temperatures; diesel oil should not be mixed with impurities, lime soil and water, otherwise it will cause premature wear and tear of fuel pump; high paraffin and sulfur content in inferior fuel oil will damage the engine; after daily operation, the fuel tank should be filled with fuel to prevent water droplets on the inner wall of the tank; Open the drain valve at the bottom of the fuel tank to drain water before operation. After the engine fuel is exhausted or the filter element is replaced, the air in the road must be discharged. The lowest ambient temperature is 0 C -10 C -20 C -30 C diesel oil 0# -10# -20# -35#.

        2. Management of other oils

        Other oils include engine oil, hydraulic oil, gear oil and so on; different grades and grades of oils can not be mixed; different kinds of excavator oils in the production process add different chemical or physical additives; to ensure that the use of oil clean, to prevent impurities (water, dust, particles, etc.) into; The marking of oil is used for environmental temperature and use. When the ambient temperature is high, the oil with high viscosity should be chosen, and when the ambient temperature is low, the oil with low viscosity should be chosen; the viscosity of gear oil is relatively large to adapt to larger transmission load, and the viscosity of hydraulic oil is relatively small to reduce liquid flow resistance.

        3. Grease management

        The use of lubricating oil (butter) can reduce wear on the surface and prevent noise. The grease should not be mixed with dust, sand, water and other impurities when it is stored and kept; the lithium-based grease G2-L1 is recommended for its good wear resistance and suitable for heavy load operation; when filling, the old oil should be extruded and scrubbed as far as possible to prevent sand from adhering.

        4. Maintenance of filter element

        The filter element plays the role of filtering impurities in oil or gas passage to prevent them from intruding into the system and causing malfunction; various filter elements should be replaced regularly according to the requirements of operation and maintenance manual; when replacing the filter element, it should check whether there is metal attached to the old filter element, if metal particles are found, timely diagnosis and improvement measures should be taken; Use the pure filter element that meets the requirements of the machine. The filtering ability of fake and inferior filter elements is poor, and the surface of the filter layer and the quality of the material do not meet the requirements, which will seriously affect the normal use of the machine.

        5, regular maintenance content


        (1) The fuel filter element and additional fuel filter element should be replaced after the new engine works 250H; the clearance of engine valve should be checked.


        (2) Daily maintenance; inspection, cleaning or replacement of air filter element; cleaning of cooling system interior; inspection and tightening of caterpillar plate bolts; inspection and adjustment of caterpillar reverse tension; inspection of intake heater; replacement of bucket teeth; adjustment of bucket clearance; inspection of front window cleaning liquid level; inspection and adjustment of air conditioning; cleaning of cab floor; Replace the filter element of the breaker. When cleaning the cooling system, after the engine is fully cooled, slowly unscrew the nozzle cover, release the internal pressure of the water tank, and then release the water; do not clean the engine while working, the high-speed rotating fan will cause danger; when cleaning or replacing the coolant, the machine should be parked on the horizontal ground

        (3) start the inspection items before the engine. Check the liquid level height of coolant (add water); check engine oil level, add oil; check fuel level (add fuel); check hydraulic oil level (add hydraulic oil); check whether air filter is blocked; check the wire; check whether the horn is normal; check the lubrication of bucket; check oil-water separator. Water and sediment.


        (4) every 100 maintenance items. Moving arm cylinder head pin; Moving arm pin; Moving arm cylinder rod end; Bucket rod cylinder head pin; Moving arm, Bucket rod connecting pin; Bucket cylinder rod end; Bucket cylinder head pin; Half rod connecting pin; Bucket rod, Bucket cylinder rod end; Bucket cylinder head pin; Bucket rod connecting pin; Check the oil level (add) in the rotary mechanism box. Oil); discharge water and sediment from the fuel tank.

        (5) maintenance items per 250H. Check the oil level in the final transmission box (add gear oil); check the battery electrolyte; replace the oil in the engine oil pan, replace the engine filter; lubricate the rotary bearing (2 places); check the tension of fan belt, and check the tension of air conditioning compressor belt, and make adjustments.

        (6) maintenance items per 500h. At the same time carry out maintenance projects every 100 and 250H; replace fuel filter element; check the height of rotary pinion grease (add grease); check and clean radiator radiator, oil cooler radiator and chiller radiator; replace hydraulic oil filter element; replace oil in the final transmission box (only at 500 hours for the first time, after 1000 hours 1) Clean the air filter inside and outside the air conditioner system; replace the filter element of the hydraulic oil vent.

        (7) maintenance items per 1000h. At the same time, the maintenance items are carried out every 100, 250 and 500 hours; the oil in the rotary mechanism box is replaced; the oil level of the shock absorber shell (return oil) is checked; all fasteners of the turbocharger are checked; the clearance of the turbocharger rotor is checked; the tension of the generator belt is checked and replaced; the anti-corrosion filter core is replaced; and the final transmission box is replaced. Oil.

        (8) maintenance items per 2000h. First complete the maintenance project every 100, 250, 500 and 1000 hours; clean the hydraulic tank filter; clean and check the turbocharger; check the generator, start motor; check the engine valve clearance (and adjust); check the shock absorber.

        (9) maintenance above 4000H. Increase pump inspection per 4000H; increase hydraulic oil replacement per 5000h.

        (10) long-term storage. When the machine is stored for a long time, in order to prevent the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder from rusting, the working device should be placed on the ground; the whole machine should be washed and dried and stored in the indoor dry environment; if the condition is limited, the machine should be parked on the well-drained cement floor; before storage, the fuel tank should be filled to lubricate all parts. Replacement of hydraulic oil and oil, coating a thin layer of butter on the exposed metal surface of the piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder, removing the negative terminal of the battery, or unloading the battery and storing it separately; adding appropriate proportion of antifreeze liquid in the cooling water according to the lowest ambient temperature; starting the engine once a month and operating the machine to lubricate each operation At the same time, the battery is charged, and the air conditioner is refrigerating and running 5-10min.

        Having said so much, I believe you have a good idea of the daily maintenance of excavators. I hope you will pay attention to the quality of oil products and filter elements in the future maintenance of equipment, so that the equipment can operate healthily, continuously and efficiently, and create more value.
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